By Sarah Lane
May 28, 2004, 16:16

Topic: Biology

ClassBrain Visitor:

I have to complete a chart about the characteristics of the six kingdoms, one of the questions is to list examples of symbiosis, but I can't seem to find any.

I need to know symbiosis examples of eubacteria, archaebacteria, protista, fungus, plant, and animal (ie. six different examples).

ClassBrain Response:

Eubacteria: Some eubacteria carry out photosynthesis.  Some use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis as plants do, but other eubacteria use other organic compounds as a source of carbon for photosynthesis. Other eubacteria fix nitrogen (convert it from Nitrogen gas (N2) to forms plants can use) as a by product of their respiration.  These eubacteria need an oxygen free (anaerobic) environment to survive.  Plants provide nodules on their roots for these bacteria that are oxygen free.  The plants gain nitrogen and the eubacteria somewhere to live.  This is an example of symbiosis: a close mutually dependent relationship between two organisms.

Kingdom Archae – Domain Eukarya: Eukaryotes: DNA is arranged in chromosomes in a nucleus. The eukaryotes include both single-celled (unicellular) and many-celled (multicellular) organisms. E.g. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts.  Mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free living bacteria.  Over time they came to live inside the eukaryotic cells and established a symbiotic relationship. 

Protista (I & II): Amoeba, Paramecium, Chlorophyta: Kelp and other algae. 
here for some interesting theories.
Fungus: mushrooms, molds, yeasts, mildew.
Some types of fungi are involved in symbiotic relationships, for example, lichens (a combination of a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium) and the mycorrhizae (symbiosis between a fungus and the roots of a vascular plant).

Plantae: trees, grasses, bushes, flowers. An example of symbiosis in the forest takes place between plants and animals. The tall trees serve as a home for the birds of the forest. The canopy protects them from predators and harsh winds. The trees also grow berries and seeds for the birds to eat. This is also an example of commensalism because the animals benefit but the trees are not effected.

Animalia: birds, mammals, reptiles, crabs, worms, fish, jellyfish, starfish, etc.
Termites cannot themselves digest the wood that they consume. Instead they rely upon symbiotic protozoans in their intestines to digest cellulose for them, absorbing the products of the protozoan symbionts for their own use. This relationship is one of the finest examples of symbiosis among animals.


Biology Concepts


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