The Story of Taps
From The Celebrating Americas Freedoms Series
The 24-note melancholy bugle call known as taps is thought to be a revision of a French bugle signal, called tattoo, that notified soldiers to cease an evenings drinking and return to their garrisons. It was sounded an hour before the final bugle call to end the day by extinguishing fires and lights. The last five measures of the tattoo resemble taps.
|Image courtesy of Beverly & Pack/Flickr CC 2.0|
The word taps is an alteration of the obsolete word taptoo, derived from the Dutch taptoe. Taptoe was the command Tap toe! to shut (toe to) the tap of a keg.
The revision that gave us present-day taps was made during Americas Civil War by Union Gen. Daniel Adams Butterfield, heading a brigade camped at Harrison Landing, Va., near Richmond. Up to that time, the U.S. Armys infantry call to end the day was the French final call, LExtinction des feux. Gen. Butterfield decided the lights out music was too formal to signal the days end. One day in July 1862 he recalled the tattoo music and hummed a version of it to an aide, who wrote it down in music. Butterfield then asked the brigade bugler, Oliver W. Norton, to play the notes and, after listening, lengthened and shortened them while keeping his original melody.
He ordered Norton to play this new call at the end of each day thereafter, instead of the regulation call. The music was heard and appreciated by other brigades, who asked for copies and adopted this bugle call. It was even adopted by Confederate buglers.
This music was made the official Army bugle call after the war, but not given the name taps until 1874.
The first time taps was played at a military funeral may also have been in Virginia soon after Butterfield composed it. Union Capt. John Tidball, head of an artillery battery, ordered it played for the burial of a cannoneer killed in action. Not wanting to reveal the batterys position in the woods to the enemy nearby, Tidball substituted taps for the traditional three rifle volleys fired over the grave. Taps was played at the funeral of Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson 10 months after it was composed. Army infantry regulations by 1891 required taps to be played at military funeral ceremonies.
Taps now is played by the military at burial and memorial services, to accompany the lowering of the flag and to signal the lights out command at days end.
***Note*** The following is a letter we received from a visitor to our website who has given us permission to post his comments concerning the inconsistencies in the above article.
1. "Taps" is NOT sounded for lowering the flag in the evening. "Retreat"
followed by the evening gun firing are followed by the flag being lowered to
"To the Color" in military installations, though often the evening gun is
dispensed with. Some organizations, like the Boy Scouts, lower the flag to
"Retreat" but that isn't the proper protocol.
2. There is no evidence of "Taps" as we know it being played at Stonewall
Jackson's funeral. That is a myth - kind of like the one that has the score
to "Taps" being discovered by a Union officer in the pocket of his dead
Confederate son's jacket.
3. We don't know if Captain Tidball had "Taps" as we know it sounded for the
funeral of his artilleryman. The term "Taps" was sometimes substituted for
"Lights Out" during that era - - I've even got a copy of a general order
with that usage in the Mexican War in 1858 - - well before "Butterfield's
Lullaby" was written. We know that Tidball ordered "Taps" to be sounded, but
not what tune he was referring to.
For some good information on "Taps" with good background information, check
The fellow who put that site together, Jari Villenueva, is a principal
musician for the US Air Force detachment at Arlington National Cemetery and
has done a ton of research on that call.
Also, Jari Villineueva has a letter from Captain Tidball's daughter and has personally spoken with his grandson. Both firmly believed that the call sounded for that artilleryman's funeral WAS the one arranged by Gen. Butterfield, but there is no primary source documentation to prove it.
long time bugler
Retired Army officer
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