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Last Updated: Apr 21st, 2011 - 14:44:53 

Holiday Cooking

Turkey Preparation Tips
By The National Turkey Federation
Nov 6, 2006, 12:26 PST

How much turkey should be purchased?

  • Allow 1 pound of uncooked turkey per person from an 8 to 12 pound turkey. Larger birds have a larger proportion of meat to bones, so 3/4 pound per person should be sufficient with leftovers for the beloved turkey sandwich or soup.
  • By purchasing a larger turkey than needed for the holiday feast, you can transform holiday extras into timesaving meals. Freeze the extra cooked turkey and you'll have your own "ready-to-prepare" healthy food for quick and easy post-holiday meals. The National Turkey Federation database offers dozens of recipes for cooked turkey. Check the variety of cooked turkey recipes for entrees, salads, appetizers, sandwiches and soups at

    How should the turkey be thawed?

  • Frozen turkey, like all protein foods, should be thawed in the refrigerator, never at room temperature. When foods are thawed at room temperature, surface bacteria can rapidly multiply to dangerous levels at temperatures of 40 degrees F and above.

    For safety and superior quality, leave turkey in the original packaging and place in a shallow pan. Thaw, in the refrigerator, using the simple formula: whole turkeys thaw at a rate of 5 pounds per 24 hours. Example: A 15-pound frozen bird will take 3 full days to thaw in the refrigerator.

  • To speed thawing, keep turkey in the original tightly sealed bag and place in a clean and sanitized sink or foodservice safe pan. Submerge in cold water and change the cold water every 30 minutes. The turkey will take about 30 minutes per pound to thaw.

    Refrigerate (at 40 degrees F or below) or cook the turkey when it is thawed. Do not refreeze uncooked, defrosted turkey.

    What are the key pointers for stuffing a turkey?

  • Stuffing should be prepared and stuffed into the turkey immediately before it is placed in the oven for roasting. If preparing the stuffing ahead-of-time, wet and dry ingredients should be refrigerated separately and combined right before stuffing the turkey.
  • Stuff the turkey loosely, about 3/4 cup of stuffing per pound of turkey.
  • Test the internal temperature of the stuffing as well as the turkey. The internal temperature in the center of the stuffing should register 160 to 165 degrees F.

    When is the turkey done?
    Since turkey is low in fat and high in protein, the meat is sensitive to extreme heat and prolonged cooking. Loosely place an aluminum foil tent over the turkey breast during the first 1 to 1-1/2 hours of roasting, then remove to allow the turkey to brown.

    A turkey should be cooked just until it is done. The best way to determine the level of doneness is with a food thermometer. Use these tests to determine doneness and to keep the turkey juicy.

  • For whole turkey, place the food thermometer in the deepest part of the thigh, but not touching the bone. The internal temperature of the turkey should measure 180 degrees F in the thigh and 170 degrees F in the breast.
  • Juices should run clear and the drumsticks should be soft and move easily at the joint.

    © Copyright 2006 by

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