Jefferson, Thomas

Thomas Jefferson

Born – April 13, 1743, Shadwell, VA

3rd US President – 1801-09

Courtesy of the National Guard

In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, “I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.”

This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albermarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello.

Freckled and sandy-haired, rather tall and awkward, Jefferson was eloquent as a correspondent, but he was no public speaker. In the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed his pen rather than his voice to the patriot cause. As the “silent member” of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786.

Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785. His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington’s Cabinet. He resigned in 1793.

Sharp political conflict developed, and two separate parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually assumed leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Attacking Federalist policies, he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states.

As a reluctant candidate for President in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of election. Through a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice President, although an opponent of President Adams. In 1800 the defect caused a more serious problem. Republican electors, attempting to name both a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives settled the tie. Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson’s election.

When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national debt by a third. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates, who were harassing American commerce in the Mediterranean. Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.

During Jefferson’s second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen. Jefferson’s attempted solution, an embargo upon American shipping, worked badly and was unpopular.

Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia. A French nobleman observed that he had placed his house and his mind “on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe.”

He died on July 4, 1826.


Learning Links about Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson – A Presidential Biography for Kids

This facts-oriented biography is ideal for younger kids.
Source: The White House

The Declaration of Independence

Although Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Roger Sherman and Robert B. Livingston comprised the committee charged with drafting the Declaration, the task fell to Jefferson, regarded as the strongest and most eloquent writer.
Source: ClassBrain / Library of Congress

President Jefferson’s Secret Message to Congress Regarding Exploration of the West, 1803

In this secret message of January 18, 1803, President Jefferson asked Congress for $2,500 to explore the Wes-all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
Source: ClassBrain

Jefferson’s Legacy – A Brief History of the Library of Congress

Learn more about this amazing repository of knowledge, and Jefferson’s role in its creation.
Source: Library of Congress

The Medical History of James Polk

The unusual vantage point on this site allows you to explore Thomas Jefferson’s health. He died mere hours before his long-time rival John Adams.
Source: John Sotos, MD.

Thomas Jefferson Fossil Collection

Did you know that Thomas Jefferson was not only a geologist but also a mastodon-bone collector? We didn’t either until the The Academy of Natural Sciences introduced Thomas Jefferson’s extensive fossil collection.
Source: The Academy of Natural Sciences


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